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The landscape of Honduras, a country of in northern Central America, is a complex of geographic and cultural areas that was formed over many millennia by sedimentation from both the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. During its history, it has been greatly affected by the influence of geologic phenomena, as well as changes in climate, environmental conditions, and human activity.
The landscape of Honduras is characterized by vast areas of dry forest, which is found almost entirely in the lowlands of the country. The humid forests are concentrated mainly in the areas around the Chamelecón and Lempira rivers, and near Lake Yojoa. This area includes the Atlantic coast and much of the country's northern lowlands. Along the Pacific coast of Honduras are the Sula-Nicaragua dry forests and wetlands, part of the Mesoamerican Biological corridor. Inland, there is also extensive savanna-like landscape found in the central and western highlands. The area between the mountains and the Caribbean Sea is dominated by broad areas of lowland swamp and coastal plain.
The landscape of Honduras is composed of a diverse variety of ecological zones. Each of these zones is defined by their specific physiographic and geological features, environmental conditions, and the human uses to which the land has been put over time.
There are three distinct ecological zones in Honduras: the Caribbean lowlands, the Caribbean highlands, and the Pacific coast.
The Caribbean lowlands, from west of Tegucigalpa in the north, to San Pedro Sula in the south and west of the country, are composed of sediments of marine origin. This area includes a wide coastal plain and is a transitional zone between the Atlantic and Caribbean Seas. The coastal plain is part of the Bahía de Honduras, which is an oceanic inlet of the Caribbean Sea. The lowland area lies between about above sea level. It is dominated by grasslands and has an average annual rainfall of between or more. Rainfall in this area is evenly distributed throughout the year, with a strong seasonality. This area contains the Lake Ixlú and the Lago del Este wetlands, both of which are important for environmental quality and human use.
The Caribbean Highlands, the largest and highest of the three ecological zones in Honduras, lies between the San Pedro Sula and the La Ceiba area. The highlands are characterized by a large central mountain range, called the Río Plátano Hills, and include the Volcán Tacana, Cerro de Fusta, and the highest point in Honduras, Cerro de Panamá. The highlands have an average annual rainfall of , distributed between two wet seasons and a semi-arid season, with the greatest amount of precipitation between December and April, during the summer rainy season. These areas include the Choluteca Canyon and the Laguna de Caja de Agua in the Department of Colon.
The Pacific coast, from west of San Pedro Sula in the north, to Choluteca in the south, is a transition zone between the Caribbean and Pacific Seas. The coastline is made up of the Pacific coastal plain and the lowland of the Islas